Tuesday, June 28, 2011

SWELLING OF CELLULOSE

        In naturally occurring cellulose which may be typified by cotton cellulose the chains in the Michelle are packed closely together . Very small molecules such as water are small enough to penetrate between the chains and a process akin to capillary pressure tends to cause the chains of cellulose when immersed in water to be forced apart be penetration of water. This process can be greatly accelerated and magnified by steeping the fibers in solutions which have the effect of destroying of decreasing the partial valencies which cause the chains to adhere together .

Once the cellulose has been swollen by such solution on teneral in never returns to the former compact state and the swelling is permanent . In theory the only difference between swollen cellulose and ordinary cellulose should be in the increased spatial separation of the chains with consequent decrease in orientation and greater exposure of the O H groups to chemical action I practice there is also usually a certain amount of degradation due to a proportion of the chains becoming bro men resulting in a lowering of the mean chain length.

Swollen cellulose behaves much the same as ordinary cellulose but chemical reactions such as hydrolysis oxidation and electrification proceed faster and physical reactions such as moisture absorption (regain) dyeing staining with reagents and absorption of inorganic salts proceed father

Examples of swollen cellulose are vegetable parchment from concentrated sulfuric acid swelling followed by washing with water pandemonium rayon from solution in copper ammonium hydroxide followed by precipitation with water mercerized cotton from swelling with caustic soda followed by washing with water acetate rayon from electrification with acetic acid followed by solution in a solvent and re precipitation of the ester.

Sunday, June 26, 2011

DESIGN AGENTS

            Warps are more often than not sized by application of stiffening and or lubricating agents to assist weaving and usually the size must be removed after weaving in preparation for dyeing . It is not impossible that much more sizing is carried out than is really necessary out of habit and that quite a lot of sizing could be dispensed with by suitable alterations in processing .If so a considerable sum of money is spent unnecessarily in putting on a size and taking it off again .

The basis for most cotton goods is starch which is also used largely for sizing wool although gelatin is also used considerably for wool . In addition there are oil sizes consisting of linseed oil which is caused to oxidase these certainly give warped which find considerable use in the weaving of rayon and especially nylon as they are emulsions they are easily removed if properly prepared . Finally there are adventitious aids to weaving such as the wax rods used by weavers for rubbing difficult warps these are frequently plain paraffin waxen extraordinary thing to use when wax rods containing emulsifying agents are available at almost the same price.
The diastolic ferments convert starch into dextrin and maltose. The action is conditioned by the following factors (a)temperature of action (b) time of action (c) P H value of the solution (d) presence of other substances.

Diastase begins to be destroyed at 65 deg. C . and decomposition is rapid at 70 deg. C . There are certain products of bacterial origin claimed to be resistant to higher temperatures but their efficiency is greatly reduced. The optimum action of all type seems to be obtained at about 60 deg. C. In commercial diastolic the enzyme is found accompanied by a natural protective agent which may be carbohydrate in character :This agent is present only on diastoforsof vegetable origin and the bacterial types are more stable after a certain amount of designing has been accomplished . Stability to temperatures near 70 deg. C . should always be tested because lack of stability may cause waste under practical conditions careless workmen may put the diasto for into cold water and heat up with an open steam pipe instead of getting the bath to the required temperature before adding the malt or the temperature of the bath may be allowed to rise above 65 deg.C.

  The time of action is related to the concentration. A certain weight of starch mey be removed quickly by a high concentration of diastase or more slowly by a lower concentration . In determining the amount to be used the cost of maly must ne nalanced against the cost of time usually maly will be found the cheaper of the two .

Malt extracts are very sensitive to P H even a small deviation from P H 7 having very noticeable effects 1/10 oz . of soda ash or one tenth pint of H C I per 100 gallons is sufficient to have a noticeable effect.
operation of a given product should therefore be known and works conditions examined to ensure that the range is not exceeded. Bacterial enzymes are much less sensitive to alkali than vegetable enzymes and it is possible with the former to design in a soap scouring bath free from alkali at the cost of using a decidedly higher concentration than would be required neutral.

Saturday, June 25, 2011

DIRECT COTTON DYE STUFFS

          These are dye stuffs which dye cotton from a neutral o rsilghtly alkaline bath. The syeing is an adsorption process and requires a certain segree of aggregation of the dye stuff in the dye bath and a certain special shape of the molecule .It is usual to increase the natural state of aggregation by the addition of salt or Sauber's salt. many direct cotton aye stuffs aye wool and silk at the boil as strongly as or more strongly than they sye cotton . A few leave wool undated especially in alkaline baths a low temperatures or after treatment of the wool with formal dehydrate or tannin . Many combine with formaldehyde copper or chromium salts to give dyeings of greatly improved fastness to either light or washing or both.


SULPHUR DYE STUFFS :
                                            This type of dye stuff is insoluble in water but is reduced by mild reducing agents such as sodium sulphide to a water soluble eleucocompound which is absorbed by cotton subsequent oxidation con averts the LegCo compound into the original insoluble form and thus "dyes " the fiber. The dyeing are usually very fast to wet processing .
Several sulphide dye stuffs are improved in fastness by after treat meant with chromium or copper salts and are brightened in shade by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidizing agent . They always contain proportions of sulphur in a form easily oxidized on storage into sulfuric acid and consequently heavy shades such as black may produce sufficient acid over a period of time to cause tendering of vegetable fibers on which they are dyed . They can be brightened in shade by after treatment with basic colors for which they act as a mordant.

Thursday, June 23, 2011

THE MEASUREMENT OF WHITE SUBSTANCES

            It might seem at first sight that the examination of white surfaces is merely a special application of the general methods of measurement of colours and that and of the instruments previously described would be satisfactory . It is a curious fact however that the colour of almost white substances is very difficult to measure accurately and consistently with such instruments . The difficulty lies in the eye of the observer and not in the sensitivity of the instrument .
         Very little work has been published upon the variation of sensitivity of the eye with the proportion of white present in a colour but it has been established that the neater a colour approaches white the more insensitive the human eye becomes to changes both in the actual colour (i e hue ) and in the amount of white present (i e the depth of the colour ).

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

LOVIBOND TINTOMETER

                The lovibond tintometer on one of the more familiar scientific instruments in th educing trade, In effect it works on exactly the same principle as dyeing to pattern the pattern is matched by means of red yellow an blue glasses which are mixed together until the required shade is obtained . In this instrument the pattern which is being matched is illuminated by an intense light thrown into one half of an eyepiece. the other half of the eyepiece is illuminated by a white light of standard intensity . The colour of this light can be modified by interposing coloured glasses between the light source and the eyepiece.
  VERY BRIGHT COLOURS:
                 It may be mentioned that in certain cases colours occur which are brighter than the colour units employed in the Tintometer . This may frequently happen when one is recording the shades of say dyeings of basic colours on silk . There is of course no glass in the Tintometer scales which compares in brightness with the shade of Rhoda mine silk or of Sulphurous on wool. In such a case it is necessary to introduce neutral tint slices i e grey glasses between the sample under test and the eye of the observer . This is recorded as excess brightness and indicates the amount of light reflected or transmitted by the sample n excess of the light reflected ot transmitted by the Tintometer slides.
                  In the Lovibon Tintometer British drug Houses pattern the number of slides in the standard model No I is restricted to sixty giving twenty of each colour red yellow and blue . It is found that good agreement between observers is obtained when working to this order of colour but Tintomter slides with finer gradations can be prepared for special purposes demanding a higher degree of accuracy.

Sunday, June 19, 2011

TEST FOR COLOUR BLINDNESS FOR GARNER TEST

GARNER  TEST :
                           Some principles to be followed in devising a test sufficiently sensitive to detect such differences have been described by the author 13 else where .These principles have since been used to construct a test which detects qualitatively and quantitatively differences in colour vision which exist amongst for example foreman dyers of proved ability in colour matching .Representative points on a colour triangle the corners of which are red yellow and blue are dyed with dyes which possess reflection spectra such that they tend to go greener in artificial light whilst test patterns are dyes in such a way that they go redder in artificial light.
  A match obtained by a normal person in north daylight on this test is not valid to him in any other light and the test is therefore of use in evaluating lamps put forward as suitable for colour matching. In one experiment a difference in the colour of the light from two commercial daylight matching lamps of the same make and supposedly identical was detected and found to be due to a difference in the age for the electric bulb in the two lamps.
          The reflectance spectra of two patterns which in this test match in north daylight to normal eyes differ in the red and green regions of the spectrum . Therefore a person who is colour weak with respect to green or red sees a difference in depth where the normal eye sees identity this difference in depth in depth is regather by the colour weak person as a difference in colour. The test detects cases of red green colour weakness which are mild enough to escape such tests as the Ishmael test .  It is also by its nature able to detest departures from normal due to yellowing of the lens or abnormal oracular pigmentation .
           The normal or mean match positions in the light of the Sc standard north daylight of the C I E 1,2 have been ascertained and are recorded on a chart for reference purposes . The test is issued together with would be obtained by a normal observer have been assessed and noted.
           The deviations from normal found by examination of a considerable number of individuals have been calculated into terms of standard deviation and a circle wotha radius of twice the standard deviation drawn round the mean match positions on the chart may be used in assessing the suitability or otherwise of an individual for employment as a colour matcher.
          

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Brain and mouth of health protection




Where's my car? Guarding against brain glitches
Six miles a week can help you hold on to what matters—your gray matter. According to a study from the G.C University of Pun jab walking six miles a week can protects against brain shrinkage and since brain size has been linked to dementia, men and women everywhere should be lacing up their tennis shoes for a stroll around the park. Aerobic exercise not only keeps your bones and heart healthy, but it may be keeping your brain sharp as well.


Effortless beauty to-do:
                                   Hide the fine lines with a sponge.To be  really sure there’s no excess make-up to settle into and emphasize those fine lines around you eyes and mouth, smooth and blend with a make-up sponge. Click for more must-try beauty and skin care tips.
Dumped? How to heal the health effects of a broken heart
 Living longer, living with loss
One father's fight to save his son sight
Food pyramid out, 'My Plate' in for healthy eating
Painful memories: Seek treatment for depression and feeling
In addition to stress and anxiety, individuals suffering from major depression may experience symptoms such as difficult concentrating, remembering details and making decisions. More importantly depression may result in a speaks in the level of cortisol in your brain. A long-term increase in the steroid hormone cortisol may lead to wasting away of your hippo campus, the part of your brain responsible for memory.
Sleep strengthens memory 
Sleep is vital in consolidating memory. The effects of adequate sleep help us understand why studying and getting 8 hours rest, is always better than studying the day of an exam. Sleep specialists still do not know the overarching purpose of sleep however, but emerging research continues to support the idea that sleep is important to the brain. While everyone may agree that a good night’s sleep makes you feel better in the morning, the science behind sleep is also critically important to policy makers that construct work hour regulations for doctors, medical residents and pilots.
TODAY Health

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Life in important you brain


 what is you life in health ?( blonde moments) - whatever you prefer to call it, we all experience forgetfulness from time to time. But there are a few simple things you can do to keep brain glitches at bay. NBC's chief medical editor Dr.Nadia Manib  offers these five easy tips to give your mental powers a boost.
Everything in moderation: Keep your alcohol intake in check
Most peoples  know that too much alcohol can impair your short-term memory. But long-term, overconsumption of alcohol can permanently impair your recall ability. Some studies have shown that moderate drinkers do better on memory tests than both heavy drinkers and even nondrinkers. Although physicians do not recommend that everyone start consuming alcohol, we certainly know that alcohol abuse can damage your brain cells and impair memory and cognition.

Mind boggling brain : Memory plays games

           Although there is plenty of controversy surrounding the memory benefits of brain-teasers and puzzles,,, for all peoples they are a good way to spend a holiday  morning. An added benefit of brain play games is that they can often be share with all your family and all friends. Social inter action is a good  way to get the neurons firing. Inter acting with both pets and peoples has been show to stave off depressive feelings and will makes you feeling youth full and vibrant for years to come.

Sunday, June 12, 2011

FURTHER WINDING TEST

         The winding may be tested further as follows . A two in wide length of adhesive tape such as is used by electricians for insulation ( or gummed paper or transparent cellulose adhesive tape ) is cut five ins . long. It is pressed longitudinally along the rod and pressed round the circumference to cover the winding completely. a sharp knife is then used to cut the winding along the length of the rod where the two edges of the tape meet .It is then a simple matter to strip the winding off from the rod as a sheet of parallel threads measuring two ins. by five ins.The sheet is placed face downwards upon a flat surface and ironed with a warm iron to complete firm adhesion to the tape .
         This pad or sheet is sufficiently stable to withstand wet treatments such as scouring stripping of sye re dyeing or testing with B D H Universal Indicator for variations in alkalinity or acidity or staining with ferro cyanide for iron content or for examination by ultra violet light for mineral oil stains . It is useful to employ this method in conjunction with the staining methods given in my other post .
This device may also be used to follow variations in length due to processing. A length of yarn is wrapped round the long axis the yarn is unwrapped and treated (e.g. by mercerisation ) dried and rewound under the same tension as originally used . Shrinkage will be indicated be the marked places forming a spiral on the rod and irregular shrinkage will show as irregularities in the spiral.
In practical works laboratory technique the use of the inspection board and inspection rod coupled with systematic examination of variations in the consecutive length of yarn obtained in the way described will solve a large percentage of the problems encountered.

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

LIPS AND EYES


 lips:
For the bride’s lips, I like to use a colour
that will not clash with the bride’s eyes and dress and
 of course her Bouquet…Bearing in mind you have already
 primed your lips when you applied your foundation and
powder by putting a suitable balm or moisturiser on
them after you have done your base. By the time you
are ready for lipstick to be applied, your lips will
be in perfect condition…-Always leave this to the very last.
I use a “Nude” lip pencil over the entire lip before applying
the lip colour as it gives extra staying power, apply
lip-colour then blot with a tissue and reapply lipstick with a
touch of gloss or a more shimmering colour to enhance the shadow of
your bottom lip and a slight touch over the top lip.



Eye
For your eyes, can not go wrong with matt make up with slight shimmering
shadow . I usually use a combination or colours to compliment the brides out fit.
A soft black eyeliner .(no browns ) use black mascara for your dedding day,
even if you are very fair and usually go for brown.. it will show up better in your
photographs, smudged finshed to the base of your lashes on your upper lid
will make your eyeslashes appear thicker and , in conjunction with a little grey or
dark brown eye  shadow applied with a think brush at the base of your lower
lashes,,, will suntyl define your eyes perfect for the photos .    

Saturday, June 4, 2011

REGENERATED CELLULOSE RAYONS

       The group includes viscose rayon cup rate rayon resin modified viscose types and magnified acetate rayon's  i e products which are substantially poly b glucose. They may be regarded chemically as swollen cellulose and their general reactions are similar to those of mercerised cotton though they are considerably more degraded. their shorter chain length causes them to have a considerably higher fluidity a greater susceptibility to chemical attack and a considerably greater swelling in water ( which results in a much greater extensibility when wet) than mercerised cotton . According to staudinger the mean chain length of cotton corresponds to 2,000 glucose units whereas the mean chain length of viscose probably contains not more than 300 to 450 units.
      Microscopically the main types of these rayon are fairly easily distinguished from each other . In addition to the normal forms there are products which have been de lustred by incorporation of pigments (titanium dioxide usually ) in the opining dope or by surface application of a pigment such as barium sulphate or by finely dispersed resins such as dimethyl urea or by substantive quaternary containing numerous air bubbles and one form which has a central canal . For examination of these types option solution of the main fibre by mounting in a medium of suitable ref active index is of great value.

Friday, June 3, 2011

STUBBORN STAINS


            To remove oil stains from woollen clothes apply a little curd over the area and wash it after some time . The stains will vanish.
To remove stains from melamine crockery , apply a little vinegar on them and all the stains will wash away easily.
 Add the juice of one orange to a bowl full of strawberries for enhanced flavour 

Egg shell uses:
         Put egg shells to good use by powdering them in a mixer . This will clean the mixer blades and you con also use the powder for scrubbing vessels.

Bio-Amla hair oil :
        bio amla hair oil has been taking care of all types of hair to make them strong , long and elegant for the last four decades . It's right combination of herbs keeps your hair full of life rich and shiny .That 's why majority of women in Pakistan prefers bio amla hair oil over other and passes it on to the next generation because of it 's unmatched benefits.



Hair tips :


               Your hair your looks and your personality.Hair style is a deferent age groups.when is pollution ours life of part.if you Care of hair ,you likes your skin and hair.hair Care to keep and healthy .The weather of winter in hair of mostly few opened.....and hair for good shampoo used it.Hair Care involves keeping and your Hair scalp clean.Hair of all problems with eat a good food,because this very effective in your hairs problems  :

Skin Tips:

            When the indoor the a morning in the sun Kerri ...use the some sunscreen lotion with a minimum thirteen minuet 30.
And Please more drinking of water ...because skin Care is a very impotent you.
Give up in the morning  more not smoking a day  .
Your skin in your life very impotent... because your skin increase good personality.
Used the some vitamin C tablas and food his finished the skin problems :

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

OXIDATION HISTORY

A slow oxidation over a long period will produce the same alterations as a rapid oxidation over a short period. The first attack by oxygen upon an oil results in peroxide formation peroxides then decompose into either free fatty acid petrol insoluble acids or the original unsaturated compound or aldehyde. Analysis for any of the decomposition products determines the amount of oxidation which has taken place but this knowledge is far less important than knowledge of the speed at which oxidation is liable to take place.
    Oxidation acids are not removed by most commercial refining processes and their amount is a safe indication of the extent of past oxidation but not of its cause nor of the likelihood of future oxidation .
    Considerable amounts of oxy-acids indicate the existence in time past of a considerable swing of the catalyst anti oxidant balance in favour of oxidation . If the reasons for the presence of oxy acids in an oil have been dealt with the presence of less than 2 % in a vegetable oil is not objectionable.
   The peroxide content of an oil has repeatedly been proposed as a criterion of suitability but it gives no indication whatever of future oxidation tendencies a given value may be due to slow formation over a long period in which case it is harmless or to a quick formation over a short period in which case it is a pointer to danger.