Sunday, December 11, 2011

Fashion designing for Pakistan and India

             Fashion designing use it more Pakistani and Indian peoples and in countries big level work it company
wenter collction  and sumaer clothes and fibre India is a big country in world 

Friday, October 7, 2011

Design collection of man's and woman

          Up time collection and up time fabrics ,A large variety of fabrics in attractive colors and designs prepared on  high tech machinery are sure to catch your eye this season .
          Faust pick and purchase up time fabrics , especially designed for men's and boys Kurtis for both formal and casual occasions . Our concept being . comfort . duality and easy wearing . you will be provided with this cataloger at all our dealers out lets especially prepared by our designers to help you and your tailor with some different ideas this season.

Fabrics that are superior in guality . durability and possessing attractive colors  designs and textures that are skin and climate friendly will leave you looking your best no matter what the occasion . With a wide variety to chose from you have the opportunity to make your selection from the different ranges we have to offer . This will enable you to have your own self designed Kurtis at an affordable price 

Monday, October 3, 2011

Wedding Rooms decorating design

       A Wedding is one of life a great moments ,A time of serious commitment as well and celebration and enjoy .This time working at a beautiful planning.Because the days of your life entrust it to your expert planners and make it truly magic .Wedding Rooms is a good solution in the fist day of wedding ,,,,,And first of all start from the door decorating on the one side in room ,Make the beautiful banner and write the nice welcome notes on the one side of banner and do not disturb the other side banner .You can use the color full lights to say welcome lover and wedding couple .

In the wedding beautiful flowers and some use the  perfume in wedding rooms. choose the best color and need for the nice notes couple .To decorate the floor and add the more romantic wedding notes .
This will add the happiness charm and at event

Monday, September 26, 2011


         All the make up use most girls and woman s' but now man s' and boy .use for the wedding day .
Wedding day is a most important in human life ,but some peoples his day celebrated is very simple ,and some peoples his day good and some stylish celebrated .Any one use the make up in life . 

Invitation cards

  Invitation cards is very simple Idea of invite your friend and family Member. And wedding cards ,,,and your like party , birthday cards and many more .choose your good card and happy wedding .Invitation card you personalty shoe and first Impaction on your friend and other member .  

Best wishes you :

Saturday, September 24, 2011

jewellery design

              The jewellery design in the famous is world .Jewellery design good life style the. In the file style jewellery design is very nice wishes.Mostly jewellery design use the woman s and girls .This design mostly use the Pakistan and Indian girls and woman s' .In the jewellery necklace and ring is very important in woman s' life .

            I like this jewellery and style .In jewellery many designing and defrent style and is make beautiful design .
My life is very simple with out jewellery .Jewellery is my life and good option in my life . use the your good life style and choose the jewellery and enjoy it life . and more design of jewellery found it my website .thank you for this visiting my site and view jewellery design .

Friday, September 16, 2011

Fashion designing for Indian

The wedding is a beautiful events of life Wedding Dresses and fashion we need
     Wedding in your life very important.Life is rubbish with out wedding .  

Wednesday, September 14, 2011


               At any particular temperature air is able to hold a certain maximum amount of water vapour in clear solution with out the air becoming misty or foggy . Excess of water vapour over this maximum or saturation amount instantly causes a fine dew to form. The maximum amount of water vapour that can he held without dew formation is usually stated in terms of grains of water per cubic foot of air this being the absolute bumidity . For example air at 70 deg . F .can hold 8 grains of water per cubic foot at saturation point . At higher temperatures than 70 deg. F . air can hold larger weights of water for example at 83 deg .F. 12 grains of water per cubic foot are required for saturation.

                           Saturated conditions are very rarely approached in practical textile operation except perhaps in dye houses. Normally the water content of air is well below saturation point . The ratio of the actual amount of vapour present to the saturation value expressed as a percentage gives the relative humidity usually shortened to .R..H. For example if the air of a room at 70deg. F . Holds only 4 grains of water per cubic foot (the absolute humidity at this temperature being 8 grains ) its relative humidity 4*100/8 or 50% R.H.
              In practical textile work the actual weight of water present per cubic foot os of much less importance than the relative humidity It would clearly be possible to have two rooms one at 70 deg. F. and one at 83 deg. F.both containing 8 grains of water per cubic foot. The relative humidities however would be 100% and 66% respectively each cubic foot of air at 83 deg. G . would be able to take up a further 4 grains of water during such an operation as drying wet wool whereas the air at 70 deg. could take up no water and could hage no drying effect.
               A point of great importance in textile testing is that the percentage of moisture in a textile fibre which has been conditioned in an atmosphere and is in equilibrium with it deepens on the relative humidity and not on the absolute humidity . Thus wool exposed to 50% R.H in a room at 70% deg. F. .would contain just as much moisture as if exposed to 50% R. H in a room at 83 deg .F though the air in th elater room would contain twice as great a weight of actual water per cubic foot as the air in the room at 70 deg. F .

               The relative humidity of air which is not subject to control varies under uncontrolled conditions very greatly as the following figures relating to common English conditions will show . On a cold frosty day in winter with temperature at treeing point the absolute humidity of the air is only 1/2 grain per cubic foot and 95% R.H. is easily attained if this air be drawn into a spinning shed would become about 6% On a hot summer day after heavy thunder rain a mill temperature of 83 % deg. F. may be reached with a very moist atmosphere containing 10 grains of water per cubic foot and a relative humidity of 80% .
              The natural regain of wool in an atmosphere of 80% R.H. is almost five times as great as in an atmosphere of 6 % R. H. wool in the same spinning shed could vary in its moisture content by 500%.

Friday, August 5, 2011

Mehndi designing for bridal

Mehndi designs is very nice the mehndi for hands very impotent.Be fore you on hands mehndi...hands complete clean and ten to eleven hours mix-up in water .mehndi design mostly woman used it .mehndi design some countries make Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, sudi Arab, malaysia, Italy, etc. mehndi design mostly made the wedding and festival religion .
    what you want your life style and more information your life,
But your life is a very simple when the  with out of fashion ,fashion is a human life style tell him and your personalty in crease it ,more mehndi design is a available in site found it your   choice thanks .

Monday, August 1, 2011

Makeup for the girls

Make up is supprisingly often a over looke ditem when planning your deam shadi.
Brides akways focus on planing their outfits. jewelliry. thir and mehndi but do not realise that,to look amazingly stunning on their
wedding day they really need to have good make up applied by a professinol.
Bridal makeup by its very naturelly is a unique requirement and your makeup regime for the big day needs careful thought and consideration.
Our bridal beauty consultant, lubna Rafiq, of Art of beauty shares some of bridal beauty insights with you ..
My personal approach to makeup for brides is one of correctove, subtle makeup that enhances the brides best features and makes her look natually radiant
and beautifull on her big day.The first thing people notice when they at a bridel is how stunning and radiant she looks,,, not her make up it self .
In fact makeup that is too obvious con look over done and artificial so understated and sopgisticated elegance is the name of the game!



     The fashion styal of bridal s 
The most woman of dream and girls thire wedding day from a early age.But Much before they even know who thay are going to marrige or marry .The most girls buy the very expanseve deassing and jewellery and make-up box etc.... but I understand party girls she when simpal dress of in very beautiful is out look .I have an intense love for fashion and bringing everything together to create the prefect look.As a models, I had done enough bridal shoots to know what I wanted and that I did not. I wanted to do things the traditional way,but on my wedding day I wanted to feel like a bride and not like, I was getting dressed for a shoot.Bridal of dress as soft and low design.

I thaing that bridal of dress in very confortable,,,,,and some few styling or brite out look.The second day I wanted something completely differen......More modern,somky eyes, pale lips and fery contemporary. A lot of people think that going to the makeup artist both days is going to mean that thay similar both days.
In my opinion, a skilled artist and of superior aesthetic sense that majed Iqbal and still be versatil. If my days long I wanted ten different beautiful,each and every day !
bridal for this colours and best season"
For the first day
Choose deep red which dose not give you a bland look because bright red or maroon both make you look stark. Other colours are green ,and light peaches and blush pink.MY favourite colours for bridal.... is this,the pick of the season is purple, with any other color to complement it,
Tip for a short bridal while choosing a bridal:
Choose a lehga is that paneled with slight tapering at the waist level and the flare starts above knee level so that you look tall . Remember to wear hight heels.

Colours of bridal dress:
Bridal of forma-ls,deep red ,dark pink,and purple just a slight touch of a third colour to accentuate the out fit,
gorgeous india bridal dress and makeup
Chang life styles For a new beginning be the frist inpression you give others of your dream wadding .At Cheney, let us guide you through the process of selecting the perfect wedding packege
to refleet your indiuduat personalty and flair.
Pip pa spent time studying the PRe. Islamic culture of Northern Afghanistan, and was Asked by Oliver stone to design the jewellery for Anglina jalie in the film, Alexander.
Her designs refer to traditional cultures, But sell to the likes of Madonna, sophie Dall and comeron Diaz.

Thursday, July 28, 2011


      At the present time all the well known resins of the colourless type are employed in textile work for one purpose or another. The following brief survey is merely illustrative of the main types which the analyst may expect to find.
Many of the thermoplastic types are made into fibres.e g the poly amides polyvinyl chloride polyisobutylene chloride alkyd and styrene. There are three to four protein formaldehyde fibres .Some fibres ,especially cotton and rayon are reacted with synthetic resin components such as aldehyde or ketone to produce new cross bonded products exhibiting durable stiff finishes which must be regarded as belonging to the synthetic resin group  The treatment of cellulose with acetone and of wool with formaldehyde must be included in this group.

Starch has been condensed with formaldehyde in presence of an acid catalyst to produce resistant finishes. Cellulose ethers (alkyl celluloses ) including methyl ethyl and benzyl cellulose have useful applications . methyl cellulose has the peculiar and valuable property of being insoluble in hot water but soluble cold . The hydroxylate celluloses / such as glycol cellulose form mucilages with 2N caustic soda from which they can be applied to textiles . treatment with dilute acid precipitates the resin on to the fibre in a form fast to mild washing . Carboxymethyl cellulose forms a water soluble sodium salt which on drying on the fibre gives a flexible film type finish.

Cellulose will also condense with dimethylol form amide, H 2 OH or a mixture of glottal urea formaldehyde to give cross bonded effects.
Animalised rayon is produced by incorporating phenol formaldehyde , Gaudiness formaldehyde melamine formaldehyde or cyan amide formaldehyde resins in the spinning bath for viscose to give such products as Hollandaise the cellulose being cross bonded . Non cross bonded types contain particles of E.G basis polyethylene mine resin as example being Sinistral.

Emulsion of many thermoplastic resins are applied followed by drying and possibly by heat treatment to give special finishes . Polyvinyl acetate polyvinyl alcohol and methyl meth acrylate (Possibly modified by alkyd resins 0 are used for abrasion resistant finishes . non snag finishes non slip finishes therm adhesive finishes permanent embossed effects and pigment fixation in printing. They may be produced using either an anion active emulsifier for padding purposes or with a cation active emulsifier in which axes the emulsified resin is substantive to the fibre.

Amongst thermosetting resins urea formaldehyde types are used for crease resistant finishes being applied in a partly preformed state and subsequently cured by baking . A partly preformed resin alkyd modified may be applied from an ammonia solution dried and baked to give permanent stiff finishes . Urea formaldehyde resins partly condensed to a water soluble product may be produced as water soluble powders the solutions of which give a finely dispersed and substantive precipitate of methylene urea polymer on addition of acid these products are used for de lustred finishes which are permanent after baking . Other de lustred effects are obtained by adding titanium oxide to an ordinary urea formaldehyde resin preparation. Thoreau may be used in place of urea.
The melamine resins are rapidly increasing in importance. Melamine formaldehyde resin anticancer finishes are more resistant to chlorine bleaching in laundering than the urea formaldehyde types on cotton .they have been used to produce shrink resistant finishes on wool. Discriminable formaldehyde resins are used to confer improved wash fastness on dyestuffs and are also claimed to impart fireproof properties . 

Wednesday, July 27, 2011


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Monday, July 25, 2011


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Sunday, July 24, 2011


In principle these methods are similar to capillarity methods the main differences being that in capillarity the liquid and its solute rise by surface tension through a micro porous system whereas in chromatographic analysis they fall by gravity through such a system ,chromatographic adsorbent may be selected to be strongly polar and chemically reactive towards one component of a mixture to be tested.

The manipulative technique consists in packing a tube of perhaps an inch diameter with an adsorbent powder such as finely divided alumina and pouring the liquid on the top of the column of adsorbent . the larger aggregates tend to be retarded in their rate of flow as compared to the smaller molecules and the aggregates or molecules of polarity opposite to that of the adsorbent tend to be further retarded or adsorbed and fixed .

The components in the solution therefore become separated in space and the spacial sepatation may be "developed" by washing with pure solvent or elutriant.The chief advantage of the method is that by proper development components may be isolated as separate fractions . In certain cases of biological importance component which are extremely difficult to estimate quantitatively by chemical methods are very easily separated in almost a pure form by chromatography.

The properties of the adsorbent depend largely on its method of preparation . Alumina silica gel politer starch magnesium carbonate (Ponds and indeed any finely divide material may be used .
     The technique is still largely empirical but general principles are emerging and mathematical investigations have commenced to be made .In general good separation is obtained of two components if one has a much bigger molecule or is more aggregated than the other , or if one component carries an electrical charge of opposite sign to that of the adsorbent whilst the other is electrically inert or of the same charge as the adsorbent.

Thursday, July 21, 2011


          The extraordinary progress made in histochemical analysis during recent years deserves the attention of all textile chemists,especially since the development of spot tests has placed a large number of very successful reactions within reach of almost anyone . They may be divided into three main groups :

( 1 ) Crystal formation tests.
 These involve the precipitation usually on a microscope slide of a chemical compound which has a distinctive cry stalling form or colour the crystals are as a rule of micro dimensions and in some instances require high magnification for observation . Although very sensitive and specific they require some skill and experience and knowledge of crystallography.

( 2 ) Stop tests
 which involve the production on a glass plate or filter paper of a coloured stain or precipitate which is characteristic of a certain radices or element . They are very simple to carry out and are superseding many old established tests.

( 3 ) Film tests
 These depend on the taking of a print on gelatine film previously impregnated with a suitable reagent. The film is pressed into contact with the material such as cloth which it is desired to test.

This is marketed as salt cake glanders  salt and sodium sulphate crystals .It should be tested colorimetric ally for iron and volumetrically for sulphate content by precipitation as Benzedrine sulphate or alternatively as barium sulphate by the gravimetric method.

Monday, July 18, 2011


        Two test solutions are required A and B. solution A is 62% zinc chloride in water , solution B is I% iodine in a 20% solution of potassium iodide. the test reagent is a mixture of I cc .B and 100 c.c. A it must be freshly prepared .The sample of fibre is wetted out well squeezed and immersed for three minutes in th test solution being then removed and rinsed in water. Swollen cellulose such as cotton is colourless after washing but swollen cellulose such as mercerised cotton or viscose is dark blue being slowly decolonised by washing .The colour is not permanent but if the sample after washing is dropped into a boiling I% solution of Indigo sol Blue O4B the indigo sol is caused to dye the cotton in proportion to the amount of iodine present . Washing in water followed by a short period in boiling soap solution provides a permanent record .Dyed samples may first be stripped without affecting the test.

             This consists in storing wool tops oiled with the oil under test wrapped in paper to keep out dust for periods up t three or four years . samples should be drawn extracted and th extract examined after one two four eight sixteen thirty two and sixty four weeks after the date of oiling . It is always desirable to carry out this test as a final method when examining an entirely new oil .Table LIII shows the figures to be expected from a good quality oil.

Saturday, July 16, 2011


          Prepare the total fatty acids extract with petroleum ether (B.P.40 to 60 deg.C.) under reflux dissolve the residue in alcohol, evaporate to dryness and weigh . The term oxy acids is a very vague one and merely indicates the substances which are insoluble in petrol ether but solely in alcohol. Amongst these bodies is dihydroxystearic acid and consequently a high percentage of oxy acids does not necessarily indicate that it has oxidised at the double bond by addition of the OH group probably due to decomposition of peroxides .
However when a typical case of undesirable oxidation of an oil on wool is examined it is invariably found that the paint like sub stances present are insoluble in petroleum ether but soluble in alcohol.

         When the surface tension of a pure liquid is lowered by solution in it of any substance this substance concentrates in the surface to form a specially concentrated layer and the nature of this layer determines the lathering power. Wetting out is mainly a function of surface tension the deciding factor in the wetting of a solid by a liquid being the interracial tension liquid solid .
The angle at which a liquid joins a solid which it does not wet is termed the contact angle , this becomes less as the interracial tension in lowered until at complete wetting it is zero .The contact angle decreases as the relative humid ity increases a point of practical importance A low interracial tension confers on the wetting liquid the power of penetrating into capillary channels and interstices of textile materials. The surface tension of wetting and detergent solutions is decreased with increase of temperature . The soaps from liquid fatty acids such as oleic are better foaming and emulsify more readily than soaps from solid fatty acid such as Stearns acid at low temperatures , but the reverse is the case at boiling point Foaming is a general indication of wetting power though it is more reliably a measure of emulsion formation.

Friday, July 15, 2011


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Friday, July 8, 2011


        A perfectly pure olefin acid ester oxidises comparatively slowly . The rate of oxidation is influenced very greatly by the presence of catalysts and can be increased a millionfold in this way Almost all oils prepared from natural sources contain oxidising catalysts . The most powerful catalysts are compounds of those metals copying the lowest points on the atomic volume curve . Even I mole . ferric oleate per 10,000,000 moles . Ethyl oleate has a detectable effect on the mickey test .

When metallic catalysts ans fatty acids are both present their combined effect is very great. Exposure to light has also an important catalytic effect not altogether due to the formation of peroxides.
All catalysts seem to act primarily by greatly increasing the rate of peroxide formation. the author considers that metals act as activating agents and light and heat act be supplying activation energy fatty acids are known to be more easily activated than esters . In the case of metals if C is the metal compound and a the activation energy then C+a Ca : Ca + M to Ma + C: C+ a to Ca ,etc
In the case of light either the catalysts or the fatty acid ester may become activated directly I,e M+bv to Ma : C + bv to Ca.


The first line of this post is concerned with the reactions which take place when an ester of an unsaturated fatty acid of the kind occurring in many suitable textile oils is oxidised by air or oxygen . For the sake of simplicity such an ester may be represented as R1 C H:C H-R 2 COOR 3 an example being ethyl oleate.

When a saturated carbon chain is oxidation takes place mainly at elevated temperatures such as occur in the Mackey  test or in vapour phase oxidation or due to bacterial action.

The most common type of oxidation is attack on the double bond which takes place rapidly even at normal room temperatures . The first stage is peroxide formation by addition of a molecule of oxygen at the double bond the subsequent stages may be shown diagram manically as follows

                                                                 splitting products
                                                                 condensation products
When monophthongs fatty acids E g Leica acid are involved the condensation products will be limited to dimers which will be soluble in the oil. This is what happens in a non drying oil.
          When diethenoid fatty acids E g Linotype acid are involved the possibility of trio or higher polymers arises as Linotype may form a double peroxide and each such compound con condense with two othe peroxides . In the case of Linotype acid such condensation products are likely to be relatively simple and will at first from dispersion or microscopically small aggregates in the mass of unoxidised oil.
As oxidation becomes more extensive these aggregates may link up to form al loose structure which will be viscous and sticky .If the oxidation has taken place on a textile fibre the oil. will not readily split up into small droplets during scouring and will be difficult to scour out .This is a description of the behaviour of a semi drying oil E g cotton seed oil.

Tuesday, July 5, 2011



        One of the great difficulties in the measurement of color is that color depends to a large extent on the surface structure (glossy matt corrugated etc ) and hence upon the lustre of the material which is color .A further difficulty is that the eye is not as suitable an instrument as xould be desired for the purpose of measuring color because it sees a perfectly graded range of color e. g, from white to dark green as a series of small steps each differing by a slight jump from the adjacent steps . There is the further difficulty possibly the most important one of all that scientific instruments do not as a rule react to the spectrum of white light in the same manner as the eye does.

This may be illustrated simply by means of the example of an ordinary photographic plate . The eye sees a bright red and a bright green as two equally luminous surfaces but the photographic plate sees the bright red as black whilst it sees the bright green as a much more luminous color.

Sunday, July 3, 2011


       In view of the wide range of products available and the possibility of complex mixtures being marketed it is not possible to devise a general scheme of analysis which will cover all cases. Extraction with a non polar solvent such as petroleum wther will remove solvents unsatisfied fats and oil subsequent extraction with absolute alcohol will remove soaps and oxidized fatty bodies.

The residue will consist of suspected and opinionated bodies together with inorganic alcohol insoluble substances. A simple scheme of this kind must however be regarded as qualitative only. A considerable knowledge of the chemistry of oils and soap is necessary to deal with the more complex cases adn the methods given are merely for routine control of deliveries . Efforts should be directed towards performance tests on a value basis rather than towards chemical analysis in detail.

         Soaps employed in the textile industry are mainly the sodium or potassium salts of oleic palmistry and stearic acid in admixture in the proportions in which they occur naturally in such oils as olive oil and are chis oil. For certain purposes coconut oil soaps are used which are mainly sodium laureate. Soaps have good wetting and detergent power but are unstable chemically being decomposed by acids and precipitated from solution by calcium and magnesium salts in hard water.

Friday, July 1, 2011


           The fibers known in the textile trade as best fibers are the stiffening elements associated with the phloem tissues in plant stems leaf stalks and leaves . They can be divided botanically into two groups  (1) cells occurring in the bast of the stalks or stems (2) the fibers occurring as serendipitous tissue in leaves . They are generally characterized by having a ratio of length to diameter of from 500 to 2000 They occur in bundles disposed longitudinally wherever stiffening is required .

The cells in the bundles are embedded are embedded in a median layer which cements the fibers together . This may be almost absent as in the case of New Zealand flax or very thick as in the case of nuns hemp. It consists of lining or nitrocellulose or in th cease of flax of calcium spectate.

The bundles themselves are embedded in a packing structure consisting of cuboid parenchymatous cells of no textile value .
External to the phloem is a layer of cortex which may be regarded as a skin or bark.The commercial methods used in the production of bast fibers consist in general of  ,mechanical removal of the cortex , mechanical removal the whole or most of the median layer. In commercial production the cortex parenchyma and median structures are rarely removed quite completely and examination for identification purposes should not neglect a search for residual non bast cells which are often characteristic.

Chemically the bast fibers are all cellulose but differ from cotton in that they also contain varying proportions of lining or nitrocellulose. This proportion may very from almost zero in the case of ramie to a proportion of 40% lining in the case of jute hemp may be regarded as typical of an intermediate type containing from 5 to 10 % nitrocellulose.

Microscopical methods of identification consist in measurement of the mean cell diameter observation of the shape of the cell ends , consideration of the width of the lumpen relative to that of the cell walls examination of the cross section and determination of the characteristics of special constituents such as the stigmata in manila .Chemically the most useful reaction for identification is this specific staining of nitrocellulose by means of phloroglucinol.

Some of the fiber names are used very loosely fo example matthews ( textile fibers ) lists more than thirty plants giving fibers known commercially as hemp. The most important textile bast fibers are ramie flax hemp and jute these together with sisal manila New Zealand flax and raffia are considered in detail below . For other bast fibers Matthews should be consulted.


         The best design in the world are textile designing mostly summer or winter weather use it peoples and some design summer and winter below choice the good design and enjoy it your life ,But is design my like this all the in  good design ,textile and fashion in used the more designing for the make dresses man and woman ,this likes the more girls and some boys ,this comfortable and soft beautiful and as golden shine design .so your like cotton or wool and other fabrics or best collection.  

Tuesday, June 28, 2011


        In naturally occurring cellulose which may be typified by cotton cellulose the chains in the Michelle are packed closely together . Very small molecules such as water are small enough to penetrate between the chains and a process akin to capillary pressure tends to cause the chains of cellulose when immersed in water to be forced apart be penetration of water. This process can be greatly accelerated and magnified by steeping the fibers in solutions which have the effect of destroying of decreasing the partial valencies which cause the chains to adhere together .

Once the cellulose has been swollen by such solution on teneral in never returns to the former compact state and the swelling is permanent . In theory the only difference between swollen cellulose and ordinary cellulose should be in the increased spatial separation of the chains with consequent decrease in orientation and greater exposure of the O H groups to chemical action I practice there is also usually a certain amount of degradation due to a proportion of the chains becoming bro men resulting in a lowering of the mean chain length.

Swollen cellulose behaves much the same as ordinary cellulose but chemical reactions such as hydrolysis oxidation and electrification proceed faster and physical reactions such as moisture absorption (regain) dyeing staining with reagents and absorption of inorganic salts proceed father

Examples of swollen cellulose are vegetable parchment from concentrated sulfuric acid swelling followed by washing with water pandemonium rayon from solution in copper ammonium hydroxide followed by precipitation with water mercerized cotton from swelling with caustic soda followed by washing with water acetate rayon from electrification with acetic acid followed by solution in a solvent and re precipitation of the ester.

Sunday, June 26, 2011


            Warps are more often than not sized by application of stiffening and or lubricating agents to assist weaving and usually the size must be removed after weaving in preparation for dyeing . It is not impossible that much more sizing is carried out than is really necessary out of habit and that quite a lot of sizing could be dispensed with by suitable alterations in processing .If so a considerable sum of money is spent unnecessarily in putting on a size and taking it off again .

The basis for most cotton goods is starch which is also used largely for sizing wool although gelatin is also used considerably for wool . In addition there are oil sizes consisting of linseed oil which is caused to oxidase these certainly give warped which find considerable use in the weaving of rayon and especially nylon as they are emulsions they are easily removed if properly prepared . Finally there are adventitious aids to weaving such as the wax rods used by weavers for rubbing difficult warps these are frequently plain paraffin waxen extraordinary thing to use when wax rods containing emulsifying agents are available at almost the same price.
The diastolic ferments convert starch into dextrin and maltose. The action is conditioned by the following factors (a)temperature of action (b) time of action (c) P H value of the solution (d) presence of other substances.

Diastase begins to be destroyed at 65 deg. C . and decomposition is rapid at 70 deg. C . There are certain products of bacterial origin claimed to be resistant to higher temperatures but their efficiency is greatly reduced. The optimum action of all type seems to be obtained at about 60 deg. C. In commercial diastolic the enzyme is found accompanied by a natural protective agent which may be carbohydrate in character :This agent is present only on diastoforsof vegetable origin and the bacterial types are more stable after a certain amount of designing has been accomplished . Stability to temperatures near 70 deg. C . should always be tested because lack of stability may cause waste under practical conditions careless workmen may put the diasto for into cold water and heat up with an open steam pipe instead of getting the bath to the required temperature before adding the malt or the temperature of the bath may be allowed to rise above 65 deg.C.

  The time of action is related to the concentration. A certain weight of starch mey be removed quickly by a high concentration of diastase or more slowly by a lower concentration . In determining the amount to be used the cost of maly must ne nalanced against the cost of time usually maly will be found the cheaper of the two .

Malt extracts are very sensitive to P H even a small deviation from P H 7 having very noticeable effects 1/10 oz . of soda ash or one tenth pint of H C I per 100 gallons is sufficient to have a noticeable effect.
operation of a given product should therefore be known and works conditions examined to ensure that the range is not exceeded. Bacterial enzymes are much less sensitive to alkali than vegetable enzymes and it is possible with the former to design in a soap scouring bath free from alkali at the cost of using a decidedly higher concentration than would be required neutral.

Saturday, June 25, 2011


          These are dye stuffs which dye cotton from a neutral o rsilghtly alkaline bath. The syeing is an adsorption process and requires a certain segree of aggregation of the dye stuff in the dye bath and a certain special shape of the molecule .It is usual to increase the natural state of aggregation by the addition of salt or Sauber's salt. many direct cotton aye stuffs aye wool and silk at the boil as strongly as or more strongly than they sye cotton . A few leave wool undated especially in alkaline baths a low temperatures or after treatment of the wool with formal dehydrate or tannin . Many combine with formaldehyde copper or chromium salts to give dyeings of greatly improved fastness to either light or washing or both.

                                            This type of dye stuff is insoluble in water but is reduced by mild reducing agents such as sodium sulphide to a water soluble eleucocompound which is absorbed by cotton subsequent oxidation con averts the LegCo compound into the original insoluble form and thus "dyes " the fiber. The dyeing are usually very fast to wet processing .
Several sulphide dye stuffs are improved in fastness by after treat meant with chromium or copper salts and are brightened in shade by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidizing agent . They always contain proportions of sulphur in a form easily oxidized on storage into sulfuric acid and consequently heavy shades such as black may produce sufficient acid over a period of time to cause tendering of vegetable fibers on which they are dyed . They can be brightened in shade by after treatment with basic colors for which they act as a mordant.

Thursday, June 23, 2011


            It might seem at first sight that the examination of white surfaces is merely a special application of the general methods of measurement of colours and that and of the instruments previously described would be satisfactory . It is a curious fact however that the colour of almost white substances is very difficult to measure accurately and consistently with such instruments . The difficulty lies in the eye of the observer and not in the sensitivity of the instrument .
         Very little work has been published upon the variation of sensitivity of the eye with the proportion of white present in a colour but it has been established that the neater a colour approaches white the more insensitive the human eye becomes to changes both in the actual colour (i e hue ) and in the amount of white present (i e the depth of the colour ).

Tuesday, June 21, 2011


                The lovibond tintometer on one of the more familiar scientific instruments in th educing trade, In effect it works on exactly the same principle as dyeing to pattern the pattern is matched by means of red yellow an blue glasses which are mixed together until the required shade is obtained . In this instrument the pattern which is being matched is illuminated by an intense light thrown into one half of an eyepiece. the other half of the eyepiece is illuminated by a white light of standard intensity . The colour of this light can be modified by interposing coloured glasses between the light source and the eyepiece.
                 It may be mentioned that in certain cases colours occur which are brighter than the colour units employed in the Tintometer . This may frequently happen when one is recording the shades of say dyeings of basic colours on silk . There is of course no glass in the Tintometer scales which compares in brightness with the shade of Rhoda mine silk or of Sulphurous on wool. In such a case it is necessary to introduce neutral tint slices i e grey glasses between the sample under test and the eye of the observer . This is recorded as excess brightness and indicates the amount of light reflected or transmitted by the sample n excess of the light reflected ot transmitted by the Tintometer slides.
                  In the Lovibon Tintometer British drug Houses pattern the number of slides in the standard model No I is restricted to sixty giving twenty of each colour red yellow and blue . It is found that good agreement between observers is obtained when working to this order of colour but Tintomter slides with finer gradations can be prepared for special purposes demanding a higher degree of accuracy.

Sunday, June 19, 2011


                           Some principles to be followed in devising a test sufficiently sensitive to detect such differences have been described by the author 13 else where .These principles have since been used to construct a test which detects qualitatively and quantitatively differences in colour vision which exist amongst for example foreman dyers of proved ability in colour matching .Representative points on a colour triangle the corners of which are red yellow and blue are dyed with dyes which possess reflection spectra such that they tend to go greener in artificial light whilst test patterns are dyes in such a way that they go redder in artificial light.
  A match obtained by a normal person in north daylight on this test is not valid to him in any other light and the test is therefore of use in evaluating lamps put forward as suitable for colour matching. In one experiment a difference in the colour of the light from two commercial daylight matching lamps of the same make and supposedly identical was detected and found to be due to a difference in the age for the electric bulb in the two lamps.
          The reflectance spectra of two patterns which in this test match in north daylight to normal eyes differ in the red and green regions of the spectrum . Therefore a person who is colour weak with respect to green or red sees a difference in depth where the normal eye sees identity this difference in depth in depth is regather by the colour weak person as a difference in colour. The test detects cases of red green colour weakness which are mild enough to escape such tests as the Ishmael test .  It is also by its nature able to detest departures from normal due to yellowing of the lens or abnormal oracular pigmentation .
           The normal or mean match positions in the light of the Sc standard north daylight of the C I E 1,2 have been ascertained and are recorded on a chart for reference purposes . The test is issued together with would be obtained by a normal observer have been assessed and noted.
           The deviations from normal found by examination of a considerable number of individuals have been calculated into terms of standard deviation and a circle wotha radius of twice the standard deviation drawn round the mean match positions on the chart may be used in assessing the suitability or otherwise of an individual for employment as a colour matcher.

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Brain and mouth of health protection

Where's my car? Guarding against brain glitches
Six miles a week can help you hold on to what matters—your gray matter. According to a study from the G.C University of Pun jab walking six miles a week can protects against brain shrinkage and since brain size has been linked to dementia, men and women everywhere should be lacing up their tennis shoes for a stroll around the park. Aerobic exercise not only keeps your bones and heart healthy, but it may be keeping your brain sharp as well.

Effortless beauty to-do:
                                   Hide the fine lines with a sponge.To be  really sure there’s no excess make-up to settle into and emphasize those fine lines around you eyes and mouth, smooth and blend with a make-up sponge. Click for more must-try beauty and skin care tips.
Dumped? How to heal the health effects of a broken heart
 Living longer, living with loss
One father's fight to save his son sight
Food pyramid out, 'My Plate' in for healthy eating
Painful memories: Seek treatment for depression and feeling
In addition to stress and anxiety, individuals suffering from major depression may experience symptoms such as difficult concentrating, remembering details and making decisions. More importantly depression may result in a speaks in the level of cortisol in your brain. A long-term increase in the steroid hormone cortisol may lead to wasting away of your hippo campus, the part of your brain responsible for memory.
Sleep strengthens memory 
Sleep is vital in consolidating memory. The effects of adequate sleep help us understand why studying and getting 8 hours rest, is always better than studying the day of an exam. Sleep specialists still do not know the overarching purpose of sleep however, but emerging research continues to support the idea that sleep is important to the brain. While everyone may agree that a good night’s sleep makes you feel better in the morning, the science behind sleep is also critically important to policy makers that construct work hour regulations for doctors, medical residents and pilots.
TODAY Health

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Life in important you brain

 what is you life in health ?( blonde moments) - whatever you prefer to call it, we all experience forgetfulness from time to time. But there are a few simple things you can do to keep brain glitches at bay. NBC's chief medical editor Dr.Nadia Manib  offers these five easy tips to give your mental powers a boost.
Everything in moderation: Keep your alcohol intake in check
Most peoples  know that too much alcohol can impair your short-term memory. But long-term, overconsumption of alcohol can permanently impair your recall ability. Some studies have shown that moderate drinkers do better on memory tests than both heavy drinkers and even nondrinkers. Although physicians do not recommend that everyone start consuming alcohol, we certainly know that alcohol abuse can damage your brain cells and impair memory and cognition.

Mind boggling brain : Memory plays games

           Although there is plenty of controversy surrounding the memory benefits of brain-teasers and puzzles,,, for all peoples they are a good way to spend a holiday  morning. An added benefit of brain play games is that they can often be share with all your family and all friends. Social inter action is a good  way to get the neurons firing. Inter acting with both pets and peoples has been show to stave off depressive feelings and will makes you feeling youth full and vibrant for years to come.