Thursday, July 28, 2011

THE TEXTILE APPLICATION


      At the present time all the well known resins of the colourless type are employed in textile work for one purpose or another. The following brief survey is merely illustrative of the main types which the analyst may expect to find.
Many of the thermoplastic types are made into fibres.e g the poly amides polyvinyl chloride polyisobutylene chloride alkyd and styrene. There are three to four protein formaldehyde fibres .Some fibres ,especially cotton and rayon are reacted with synthetic resin components such as aldehyde or ketone to produce new cross bonded products exhibiting durable stiff finishes which must be regarded as belonging to the synthetic resin group  The treatment of cellulose with acetone and of wool with formaldehyde must be included in this group.

Starch has been condensed with formaldehyde in presence of an acid catalyst to produce resistant finishes. Cellulose ethers (alkyl celluloses ) including methyl ethyl and benzyl cellulose have useful applications . methyl cellulose has the peculiar and valuable property of being insoluble in hot water but soluble cold . The hydroxylate celluloses / such as glycol cellulose form mucilages with 2N caustic soda from which they can be applied to textiles . treatment with dilute acid precipitates the resin on to the fibre in a form fast to mild washing . Carboxymethyl cellulose forms a water soluble sodium salt which on drying on the fibre gives a flexible film type finish.

Cellulose will also condense with dimethylol form amide, H.co.N(C H 2 OH or a mixture of glottal urea formaldehyde to give cross bonded effects.
Animalised rayon is produced by incorporating phenol formaldehyde , Gaudiness formaldehyde melamine formaldehyde or cyan amide formaldehyde resins in the spinning bath for viscose to give such products as Hollandaise the cellulose being cross bonded . Non cross bonded types contain particles of E.G basis polyethylene mine resin as example being Sinistral.

Emulsion of many thermoplastic resins are applied followed by drying and possibly by heat treatment to give special finishes . Polyvinyl acetate polyvinyl alcohol and methyl meth acrylate (Possibly modified by alkyd resins 0 are used for abrasion resistant finishes . non snag finishes non slip finishes therm adhesive finishes permanent embossed effects and pigment fixation in printing. They may be produced using either an anion active emulsifier for padding purposes or with a cation active emulsifier in which axes the emulsified resin is substantive to the fibre.

Amongst thermosetting resins urea formaldehyde types are used for crease resistant finishes being applied in a partly preformed state and subsequently cured by baking . A partly preformed resin alkyd modified may be applied from an ammonia solution dried and baked to give permanent stiff finishes . Urea formaldehyde resins partly condensed to a water soluble product may be produced as water soluble powders the solutions of which give a finely dispersed and substantive precipitate of methylene urea polymer on addition of acid these products are used for de lustred finishes which are permanent after baking . Other de lustred effects are obtained by adding titanium oxide to an ordinary urea formaldehyde resin preparation. Thoreau may be used in place of urea.
The melamine resins are rapidly increasing in importance. Melamine formaldehyde resin anticancer finishes are more resistant to chlorine bleaching in laundering than the urea formaldehyde types on cotton .they have been used to produce shrink resistant finishes on wool. Discriminable formaldehyde resins are used to confer improved wash fastness on dyestuffs and are also claimed to impart fireproof properties . 

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

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Monday, July 25, 2011

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Sunday, July 24, 2011

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS

In principle these methods are similar to capillarity methods the main differences being that in capillarity the liquid and its solute rise by surface tension through a micro porous system whereas in chromatographic analysis they fall by gravity through such a system ,chromatographic adsorbent may be selected to be strongly polar and chemically reactive towards one component of a mixture to be tested.

The manipulative technique consists in packing a tube of perhaps an inch diameter with an adsorbent powder such as finely divided alumina and pouring the liquid on the top of the column of adsorbent . the larger aggregates tend to be retarded in their rate of flow as compared to the smaller molecules and the aggregates or molecules of polarity opposite to that of the adsorbent tend to be further retarded or adsorbed and fixed .

The components in the solution therefore become separated in space and the spacial sepatation may be "developed" by washing with pure solvent or elutriant.The chief advantage of the method is that by proper development components may be isolated as separate fractions . In certain cases of biological importance component which are extremely difficult to estimate quantitatively by chemical methods are very easily separated in almost a pure form by chromatography.

The properties of the adsorbent depend largely on its method of preparation . Alumina silica gel politer starch magnesium carbonate (Ponds and indeed any finely divide material may be used .
     The technique is still largely empirical but general principles are emerging and mathematical investigations have commenced to be made .In general good separation is obtained of two components if one has a much bigger molecule or is more aggregated than the other , or if one component carries an electrical charge of opposite sign to that of the adsorbent whilst the other is electrically inert or of the same charge as the adsorbent.

Thursday, July 21, 2011

DETECTION OF METALS

          The extraordinary progress made in histochemical analysis during recent years deserves the attention of all textile chemists,especially since the development of spot tests has placed a large number of very successful reactions within reach of almost anyone . They may be divided into three main groups :

( 1 ) Crystal formation tests.
 These involve the precipitation usually on a microscope slide of a chemical compound which has a distinctive cry stalling form or colour the crystals are as a rule of micro dimensions and in some instances require high magnification for observation . Although very sensitive and specific they require some skill and experience and knowledge of crystallography.

( 2 ) Stop tests
 which involve the production on a glass plate or filter paper of a coloured stain or precipitate which is characteristic of a certain radices or element . They are very simple to carry out and are superseding many old established tests.

( 3 ) Film tests
 These depend on the taking of a print on gelatine film previously impregnated with a suitable reagent. The film is pressed into contact with the material such as cloth which it is desired to test.

SODIUM SULPHATE
This is marketed as salt cake glanders  salt and sodium sulphate crystals .It should be tested colorimetric ally for iron and volumetrically for sulphate content by precipitation as Benzedrine sulphate or alternatively as barium sulphate by the gravimetric method.

Monday, July 18, 2011

ZINC CHLORIDE LODINE TEST

        Two test solutions are required A and B. solution A is 62% zinc chloride in water , solution B is I% iodine in a 20% solution of potassium iodide. the test reagent is a mixture of I cc .B and 100 c.c. A it must be freshly prepared .The sample of fibre is wetted out well squeezed and immersed for three minutes in th test solution being then removed and rinsed in water. Swollen cellulose such as cotton is colourless after washing but swollen cellulose such as mercerised cotton or viscose is dark blue being slowly decolonised by washing .The colour is not permanent but if the sample after washing is dropped into a boiling I% solution of Indigo sol Blue O4B the indigo sol is caused to dye the cotton in proportion to the amount of iodine present . Washing in water followed by a short period in boiling soap solution provides a permanent record .Dyed samples may first be stripped without affecting the test.

NORMAL STORAGE TEST:
             This consists in storing wool tops oiled with the oil under test wrapped in paper to keep out dust for periods up t three or four years . samples should be drawn extracted and th extract examined after one two four eight sixteen thirty two and sixty four weeks after the date of oiling . It is always desirable to carry out this test as a final method when examining an entirely new oil .Table LIII shows the figures to be expected from a good quality oil.

Saturday, July 16, 2011

OXY ACIDS (PETROL INSOLUBLE ACIDS)

          Prepare the total fatty acids extract with petroleum ether (B.P.40 to 60 deg.C.) under reflux dissolve the residue in alcohol, evaporate to dryness and weigh . The term oxy acids is a very vague one and merely indicates the substances which are insoluble in petrol ether but solely in alcohol. Amongst these bodies is dihydroxystearic acid and consequently a high percentage of oxy acids does not necessarily indicate that it has oxidised at the double bond by addition of the OH group probably due to decomposition of peroxides .
However when a typical case of undesirable oxidation of an oil on wool is examined it is invariably found that the paint like sub stances present are insoluble in petroleum ether but soluble in alcohol.

WETTING OUT AND LATHERING POWER
         When the surface tension of a pure liquid is lowered by solution in it of any substance this substance concentrates in the surface to form a specially concentrated layer and the nature of this layer determines the lathering power. Wetting out is mainly a function of surface tension the deciding factor in the wetting of a solid by a liquid being the interracial tension liquid solid .
The angle at which a liquid joins a solid which it does not wet is termed the contact angle , this becomes less as the interracial tension in lowered until at complete wetting it is zero .The contact angle decreases as the relative humid ity increases a point of practical importance A low interracial tension confers on the wetting liquid the power of penetrating into capillary channels and interstices of textile materials. The surface tension of wetting and detergent solutions is decreased with increase of temperature . The soaps from liquid fatty acids such as oleic are better foaming and emulsify more readily than soaps from solid fatty acid such as Stearns acid at low temperatures , but the reverse is the case at boiling point Foaming is a general indication of wetting power though it is more reliably a measure of emulsion formation.

Friday, July 15, 2011

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Friday, July 8, 2011

TEXTILE CATALYSTS

        A perfectly pure olefin acid ester oxidises comparatively slowly . The rate of oxidation is influenced very greatly by the presence of catalysts and can be increased a millionfold in this way Almost all oils prepared from natural sources contain oxidising catalysts . The most powerful catalysts are compounds of those metals copying the lowest points on the atomic volume curve . Even I mole . ferric oleate per 10,000,000 moles . Ethyl oleate has a detectable effect on the mickey test .

When metallic catalysts ans fatty acids are both present their combined effect is very great. Exposure to light has also an important catalytic effect not altogether due to the formation of peroxides.
All catalysts seem to act primarily by greatly increasing the rate of peroxide formation. the author considers that metals act as activating agents and light and heat act be supplying activation energy fatty acids are known to be more easily activated than esters . In the case of metals if C is the metal compound and a the activation energy then C+a Ca : Ca + M to Ma + C: C+ a to Ca ,etc
In the case of light either the catalysts or the fatty acid ester may become activated directly I,e M+bv to Ma : C + bv to Ca.

TEXTILE OILS

The first line of this post is concerned with the reactions which take place when an ester of an unsaturated fatty acid of the kind occurring in many suitable textile oils is oxidised by air or oxygen . For the sake of simplicity such an ester may be represented as R1 C H:C H-R 2 COOR 3 an example being ethyl oleate.

When a saturated carbon chain is oxidation takes place mainly at elevated temperatures such as occur in the Mackey  test or in vapour phase oxidation or due to bacterial action.

The most common type of oxidation is attack on the double bond which takes place rapidly even at normal room temperatures . The first stage is peroxide formation by addition of a molecule of oxygen at the double bond the subsequent stages may be shown diagram manically as follows


                                                                 splitting products
                                               MO
                                                                 condensation products
When monophthongs fatty acids E g Leica acid are involved the condensation products will be limited to dimers which will be soluble in the oil. This is what happens in a non drying oil.
          When diethenoid fatty acids E g Linotype acid are involved the possibility of trio or higher polymers arises as Linotype may form a double peroxide and each such compound con condense with two othe peroxides . In the case of Linotype acid such condensation products are likely to be relatively simple and will at first from dispersion or microscopically small aggregates in the mass of unoxidised oil.
As oxidation becomes more extensive these aggregates may link up to form al loose structure which will be viscous and sticky .If the oxidation has taken place on a textile fibre the oil. will not readily split up into small droplets during scouring and will be difficult to scour out .This is a description of the behaviour of a semi drying oil E g cotton seed oil.

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

FASHION DESIGNING FOR WOMAN AND MAN'S









SURFACE STRUCTURE OF COLORED MATERIAL

        One of the great difficulties in the measurement of color is that color depends to a large extent on the surface structure (glossy matt corrugated etc ) and hence upon the lustre of the material which is color .A further difficulty is that the eye is not as suitable an instrument as xould be desired for the purpose of measuring color because it sees a perfectly graded range of color e. g, from white to dark green as a series of small steps each differing by a slight jump from the adjacent steps . There is the further difficulty possibly the most important one of all that scientific instruments do not as a rule react to the spectrum of white light in the same manner as the eye does.

This may be illustrated simply by means of the example of an ordinary photographic plate . The eye sees a bright red and a bright green as two equally luminous surfaces but the photographic plate sees the bright red as black whilst it sees the bright green as a much more luminous color.

Sunday, July 3, 2011

ANALYTIC METHODS

       In view of the wide range of products available and the possibility of complex mixtures being marketed it is not possible to devise a general scheme of analysis which will cover all cases. Extraction with a non polar solvent such as petroleum wther will remove solvents unsatisfied fats and oil subsequent extraction with absolute alcohol will remove soaps and oxidized fatty bodies.

The residue will consist of suspected and opinionated bodies together with inorganic alcohol insoluble substances. A simple scheme of this kind must however be regarded as qualitative only. A considerable knowledge of the chemistry of oils and soap is necessary to deal with the more complex cases adn the methods given are merely for routine control of deliveries . Efforts should be directed towards performance tests on a value basis rather than towards chemical analysis in detail.

SOAPS
         Soaps employed in the textile industry are mainly the sodium or potassium salts of oleic palmistry and stearic acid in admixture in the proportions in which they occur naturally in such oils as olive oil and are chis oil. For certain purposes coconut oil soaps are used which are mainly sodium laureate. Soaps have good wetting and detergent power but are unstable chemically being decomposed by acids and precipitated from solution by calcium and magnesium salts in hard water.

Friday, July 1, 2011

BEST FIBERS

           The fibers known in the textile trade as best fibers are the stiffening elements associated with the phloem tissues in plant stems leaf stalks and leaves . They can be divided botanically into two groups  (1) cells occurring in the bast of the stalks or stems (2) the fibers occurring as serendipitous tissue in leaves . They are generally characterized by having a ratio of length to diameter of from 500 to 2000 They occur in bundles disposed longitudinally wherever stiffening is required .

The cells in the bundles are embedded are embedded in a median layer which cements the fibers together . This may be almost absent as in the case of New Zealand flax or very thick as in the case of nuns hemp. It consists of lining or nitrocellulose or in th cease of flax of calcium spectate.

The bundles themselves are embedded in a packing structure consisting of cuboid parenchymatous cells of no textile value .
External to the phloem is a layer of cortex which may be regarded as a skin or bark.The commercial methods used in the production of bast fibers consist in general of  ,mechanical removal of the cortex , mechanical removal the whole or most of the median layer. In commercial production the cortex parenchyma and median structures are rarely removed quite completely and examination for identification purposes should not neglect a search for residual non bast cells which are often characteristic.

Chemically the bast fibers are all cellulose but differ from cotton in that they also contain varying proportions of lining or nitrocellulose. This proportion may very from almost zero in the case of ramie to a proportion of 40% lining in the case of jute hemp may be regarded as typical of an intermediate type containing from 5 to 10 % nitrocellulose.

Microscopical methods of identification consist in measurement of the mean cell diameter observation of the shape of the cell ends , consideration of the width of the lumpen relative to that of the cell walls examination of the cross section and determination of the characteristics of special constituents such as the stigmata in manila .Chemically the most useful reaction for identification is this specific staining of nitrocellulose by means of phloroglucinol.

Some of the fiber names are used very loosely fo example matthews ( textile fibers ) lists more than thirty plants giving fibers known commercially as hemp. The most important textile bast fibers are ramie flax hemp and jute these together with sisal manila New Zealand flax and raffia are considered in detail below . For other bast fibers Matthews should be consulted.

TEXTILE GRAPHICS DESIGNING




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